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# Year 1

Early stage

Children are encouraged to develop a mental picture of the number system in their heads to use for calculations. They develop informal ways of recording calculations using pictures, etc.

The aim is that children use mental methods when appropriate, but for calculation they cannot do in their heads they use an efficient written method accurately and with confidence.

Stage 1

The mental methods that lead to column addition generally involve partitioning; e.g. adding the tens and ones separately, often starting with the tens. Children need to be able to partition numbers in ways other than into tens and ones to help them make multiples of ten by adding in steps.

Steps in addition, can be recorded on a number line. The steps often bridge through a multiple of 10.

The empty number line helps to record the steps on the way to calculating totals.

Subtraction

Early stage

Children are encouraged to develop a mental picture of the number system in their heads to use for calculations. They develop informal ways of recording calculations using pictures, etc.

The aim is that children use mental methods when appropriate, but for calculation they cannot do in their heads they use an efficient written method accurately and with confidence.

Stage 1- Empty number line

The empty number line helps to record or explain the steps in mental subtraction. A calculation like 74-27 can be recorded by counting back 27 from 74 to reach 47. The empty number line is also a useful way of modelling processes such as bridging through a multiple of ten.

The steps can also be recorded by counting up from the smaller to the larger number to find the difference. For example by counting-up from 27 to 74 in steps totaling 47.

With practice, children will need to record less information and decide whether to count back or forward. It is useful to ask children whether counting up or back is the more effiecient for the calculations such.

Counting- up

The mental method of counting up from the smaller to the larger number can be recorded using either number lines or vertically in columns. The number of rows (or steps) can be reduced by combing steps. With two-digit numbers, this requires children to be able to work out the answer to calculations such as 30 +  =74  mentally.

Multiplication

Early stage

Children start by learning about equal groups of objects and will learn to count in 2s, 10s, and doubling. They will work on practical problem solving activities involving equal sets or groups.

Children will develop their understanding of multiplication and use jotting to support calculation.

Division

Early stage

Children start by learning about halving and even numbers. They will understand equal groups and share actual items out in play and problem solving. Children will develop their understanding of division and use jotting to support calculations.

The aim is that children use mental methods when appropriate, but for calculations that they cannot do in their heads they use an efficient written method accurately and with confidence.

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